"candy" → American English a sweet food made from sugar or chocolate
The History Of M&M’s Isn’t As Sweet As You Think It Is
By Katie Serena
Published December 21, 2017
“They melt in your mouth, not in your hand!”
Anyone who considers themselves any kind of candy connoisseur has heard the phrase before, and most likely indulged in the candy it’s describing. Since being released to the masses in the 1940s, M&M’s have been a staple of the candy lovers diet. But, have you ever wondered where the name came from?
Most people believe that the famous M on the candy shell stands for Mars Incorporated, the company that produces M&M’s. But, that’s just half the story. The truth is, there were once two famous candy makers, both of whom had the initial M, who were responsible for the production of the beloved candy, and whose story ended in a twisted, Willy Wonka-Slugworth-esque scenario.
In 1911, Frank C. Mars founded Mars Incorporated, a small confectionary business in the town of Newark, N.J. When it came time for Frank to retire, he groomed his son to take his place, provided he spend some time overseas to learn how to start his own business.
While abroad, Forrest Mars Sr. noticed British soldiers eating small, pill-sized candies called Smarties, made of a chocolate center and a hard candy shell. He was shocked to see that the candies held up in the summer heat, and that they were small and easy to transport.
Armed with his new knowledge – appropriated from British company H.I. Rowntree & Company – he moved back to the states to claim his spot in his father’s company. He secured a patent for the production of the chocolates, and, unhappy with the way his father was running the company, began to seek out a partner for his new and improved candy plan.
Which brings us to the second M in M&M, Bruce Murrie.
Like Forrest Mars, Bruce Murrie was the son of a candy magnate – William Murrie, the president of Hershey’s. And like Forrest Mars, he didn’t agree with the way his father was running his company, so he was looking for someone to team up with to change the industry.
Fortunately, Murrie met Mars, and the rest was history.
While Mars had the patent for the candy, Murrie had the chocolate. Together, they began to produce the first batches of their coated chocolate candies under a new company, known as Mars & Murrie.
M&M for short.
At first, M&M’s were sold exclusively to the U.S. armed forces, as the candies were heat-resistant and traveled well. The partnership was successful, and upon the GI’s return home they would sing M&M’s praises. The good reviews helped spur demand and send production to an all-time high. To this day, M&M’s continue to be included in MRE field rations for U.S. soldiers.
However, with the exciting jump in sales came a new low for M&M themselves. Murrie had realized that the larger the company got, the more Mars had become a nightmare to work with. Eventually, Mars became so impatient and unbending, that Murrie ended up taking a $1 million buyout just to be rid of him.
Mars subsequently brought the M&M company back under the Mars name, and phased out Hershey’s chocolate in favor of one under Mars’ own name.
In 1981, M&M’s again made history, when they were launched into orbit with the Columbia space shuttle, becoming the first candy in space. Three years after that, they were brought to national attention again, when they were named the official snack of the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles.
Since their rise to popularity in the 1950s, the M&M itself hasn’t changed much. The formula has remained much the same, though the colors and fillings have gone through a few changes.
The original M&M was plain chocolate, with the signature candy shell, which came in brown, red, orange, yellow, green and violet. Today, there are dozens of M&M flavors, including classics like peanut and peanut butter, recurring flavors like mint and caramel, and interesting ones like pretzel and birthday cake.
Though the candy is famous amongst Americans, not much is known about the candy making process itself. Mars Incorporated is still privately owned and funded, and rumors have swirled for decades about the goings-on inside the factories.
Legend has it that contractors hired to repair machines once had to be led in blindfolded, that executives would disguise themselves for meetings with competitors and outsiders, and that the decision-making process is extremely cutthroat.
According to Frank Mars’ files, not even the company bankers had access to the financial records, a tradition that may continue to this day — the company is rumored to make over $35 billion per year, which would place them around 83 on Forbes Fortune 500 list, though because they do not file federal tax information they’ve never been included.
Though their secrecy seems extreme, and especially Wonka-esque, their history explains it all. After all, M&M’s themselves began as a reproduction of a foreign candy, what’s to stop someone from getting their hands on the M&M’s secret recipe and repeating history once more?
もうひとつは、もうひとつは"OMGFacts のK. Thor Jensen氏による記事。
The Scandalous Story Behind M&Ms’ Name
Mar 31, 2017 by Thor Jensen
When the business of candy isn’t so sweet.
You’ve seen “Willy Wonka,” right? If so, you’ll remember not only the candy factory’s unpredictable impresario but also his nemesis — the sneaky, spying Slugworth. You may have wondered, is the world of candy manufacturing really that cutthroat?
Actually, it’s worse. There might not be a real Wonka, but there was a real Slugworth, and his name was Forrest Mars.
Forrest was the son of Frank C. Mars, the founder of Mars Incorporated. As a small child with polio, Frank learned to dip chocolate from his mother, and when he became an adult he spun that talent into a thriving business. When he died in 1934, that business passed on to Forrest.
Father and son weren’t on the best of terms when the two were alive, though. Forrest rarely saw his dad after his parents divorced, and instead of being given a position in the company, he was sent overseas and told to start his own business.
When he returned to the fold, he was ready to upend his Dad’s legacy and make Mars into the dominant force in American candy. Forrest brought a pathological obsession with quality control to Mars. When he spotted a mis-wrapped candy bar in a store, he furiously returned to the production plant and spent an afternoon throwing product against a glass window in front of horrified executives. Even now, Mars disposes of millions of M&Ms every day because they aren’t up to standards. But we’re getting ahead of ourselves here.
Let’s meet the other player in our tale: Bruce Murrie. Also a second-generation candy man, Bruce was the son of William Murrie, the president of Hershey’s from 1908 to 1947. Like Forrest Mars, Bruce didn’t agree with how his father was running the company. Hershey had long been risk-averse, content with pumping out Kisses and bars without innovating. Bruce wanted to push the medium of candy forward, so he went looking outside of Hershey for an unlikely partner.
During the Spanish Civil War, Forrest Mars had seen soldiers eating an unusual chocolate candy of pill-sized nuggets encased in a hard panned sugar shell. More portable than a standard candy bar and heat-resistant in an era before mass refrigeration, they were just waiting to meet the American market.
But Mars needed access to more chocolate to do it. And Hershey had it, because they weren’t subject to rationing. So Bruce made a deal to supply Mars with the resources to make the new candy in exchange for 20% of the partnership. The two men called their new company “Mars & Murrie.”
M&M for short.
After production began, M&M cut a deal to sell them exclusively to the US Armed Forces so soldiers could have sweets in their rations no matter where they were in the world. By the time GIs returned home, they were addicted to them. By 1956, they were the country’s best-selling candy.
None of that mattered to Bruce Murrie, though. Forrest Mars leveraged him out of his 20% share in 1949 and became the only M in M&M. Forrest was a terror to work with, upbraiding Bruce Murrie at every turn. He would personally blame Bruce for low sales and publicly humiliate him in front of the employees, and after a few years Bruce had had enough.
Forrest paid a paltry $1 million for Bruce’s share of a business that was doing a billion dollars in sales a year. He then folded M&M back into the main Mars corporate umbrella.
Unfortunately for Bruce Murrie, his extracurricular activities had made him persona non grata at Hershey, who weren’t happy about Mars’ growing market share. Even with his father as a former President, Bruce couldn’t get back in the door. Giving Mars a leg up in the industry was seen as an unforgivable act of treason. As Forrest’s company thrived, Bruce Murrie was never heard from again.
Forrest Mars retired in 1973, passing the business on to his children. To this day, the Mars family — and the Mars company — still marches to the beat of his drum. All employees sign oaths of secrecy, nobody has their own office, and the company carries no debt. Rumor has it the Mars heirs are forbidden from ever selling any portion of their ownership in the company. Mars now produces 400 million M&Ms each and every day, each one bearing the initial of the man who made them possible, or the man who ruined his life.